Haïti, État de la Caraïbe, occupe le tiers occidental (27750 km2) de l’île d’Hispaniola, la deuxième plus grande île de la Caraïbe après Cuba. Localisée en pleine trajectoire des cyclones ou ouragans, elle subit fréquemment les épisodes chauds d’El Nino/ENSO. Situé sur une zone de failles tectoniques majeures séparant les plaques Caraïbes et Amérique du Nord, le pays est exposé aux phénomènes naturels extrêmes qui engendrent souvent des catastrophes d’envergure (inondations, sécheresse, tremblement de terre, etc.).
There is hardly a place on Earth where the advantages and tremendous potential of domestic renewable power are as evident as in Haiti. Today, the country’s electricity system, which relies largely on dirty, expensive, and unreliable fossil fuel generators and an aging infrastructure, faces two urgent and interwoven challenges.
This Biodiversity and Tropical Forest Assessment report has been prepared to provide information and analysis as requested by USAID/Haiti, required by the U.S. Congress, and stipulated in the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) of 1961. This report updates the 2006 Biodiversity and Tropical Forest Assessment report and seeks to provide a concise and targeted assessment to inform the USAID/Haiti Mission’s strategic planning, program development, and implementation.
In Haiti, most families have traditionally relied on wood and wood-derived charcoal as their primary fuel source for indoor cooking. This resource has proven to be unsustainable, however, as over 90% of the Haitian countryside has already been deforested and wood is now in low supply. As a poor country, importing fuel is not a viable option and thus, the ability to utilize renewable energy sources is critical.
This report was prepared in response to a Congressional directive that, “after consultation with appropriate international development organizations and Haitian officials, organizations and communities, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations setting forth a plan for the reforestation of areas in Haiti that are vulnerable to erosion which pose significant danger to human health and safety.”
Wood-residue briquettes will relieve pressure in Haiti deforestation and create a market for the product. In Haiti, it would involve growing a renewable biomass crop – such as cane, vetiver or kenaf. Their by-products would furnish raw material for a briquetting operation.