In 2013, the Haitian government designated a new Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the northeast coast of Haiti, called the Three Bays National Park (3BNP). The protected area encompasses three bays: Limonade, Caracol, and Fort Liberté, as well as one of the largest inland brackish water lagoons – the Important Bird Area (IBA) of Lagon aux Boeufs – covering an area of 75,618ha.
The Government of Haiti (GOH), in conjunction with the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the United States Government (USG), is developing a 150-hectare industrial park in the northern region of Haiti that will host export-oriented garment manufacturers and other businesses.
Navassa is a small (4.64 km2), uninhabited, an oceanic island approximately 50 km off the southwest tip of Haiti (Figure 4.1) under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The island is a raised dolomite plateau ringed by vertical cliffs that descend to a sloping submarine terrace at an approximate depth of 25 m, with coral reef development primarily on small nearshore ledges and shelves.
In Haiti, most families have traditionally relied on wood and wood-derived charcoal as their primary fuel source for indoor cooking. This resource has proven to be unsustainable, however, as over 90% of the Haitian countryside has already been deforested and wood is now in low supply. As a poor country, importing fuel is not a viable option and thus, the ability to utilize renewable energy sources is critical.
This report was prepared in response to a Congressional directive that, “after consultation with appropriate international development organizations and Haitian officials, organizations and communities, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations setting forth a plan for the reforestation of areas in Haiti that are vulnerable to erosion which pose significant danger to human health and safety.”
Few countries in the world face a more serious threat to their own survival from environmental catastrophe than Haiti. Ovcrpopulatcd, its resources are overexploited and trends towards further environmental deterioration are apparent everywhere. The chance for reversing these trends, thereby preventing human suffering, destabilization of the country, and the further loss of development potential is diminishing daily. Much needs to be done, and quickly.
The studies were carried out in two phases with the assistance of the Government of Haiti (GOH) officials and the staff of USAID/Haiti. Phase I involved the collection and review of all available literature to determine its usefulness in providing a sound basis for the identification of potential development areas. The geographic scope of past, present and proposed water resources developments in Haiti were determined in order to avoid duplication of effort and to identify rural areas not now being helped.